Martin Lab

Dr Ingo Appelhagen


I am a molecular biologist, with a background in plant transcription factors, flavonoid biosynthesis, natural colours and metabolic engineering.

In Cathie Martin’s lab at the John Innes Centre, we have recently developed novel suspension cultures from engineered tobacco plants, to obtain stable sources of natural colourants. These cultures can produce exceptionally high levels of red to purple anthocyanin pigments, and allow a scalable constitutive year-around production under controlled conditions.

Intense blue colours are rare in nature and difficult to reproduce in pigment formulations, which is the main reason why almost all blue food colourants are synthetic dyes. Our project aims to investigate the structural properties of anthocyanin preparations that confer strong and stable blue colours and to select for anthocyanins with improved stability as reliable natural colourants. Our goal is to extend our plant cell culture approach to develop the first production platform for blue anthocyanin colourants, to replace synthetic food dyes.

Dr Noam Chayut

I am interested in the interface between applied plant breeding and plant metabolism. In my master’s thesis we used classical breeding of passionfruit with the goal of releasing new varieties, now used by farmers. In my PhD thesis we studied carotenoid metabolism in melons and established a molecular marker now used routinely by melon breeders. More importantly, we suggested a novel non-transgenic path toward pro-vitamin A carotenoid biofortification of food crops. The objective of the current OpenPlant project is to develop pre-breeding lines of beetroot for the production of L-DOPA.  

L-DOPA is used to treat Parkinson’s symptoms; however, the current costs of chemical synthesis make it unavailable for deprived populations worldwide. In addition, there is a growing demand for ‘natural’ or plant sourced pharmaceutical substances in the first world. L- DOPA, a product of tyrosine hydroxylation, is an intermediate metabolite in biosynthesis of violet and yellow betalain pigments, in Beta vulgaris (table beet). L-DOPA natural steady state levels are very low, usually undetectable. We intend to block the turnover of L-Dopa in beetroot to allow its accumulation to levels that could enable low-tech accessible production in a plant system.

Current data indicate two betalain metabolic genes that, if repressed, may boost L-Dopa accumulation. Therefore, we aim to inhibit the activity of L-DOPA-dioxygenase, and L-DOPA-cyclase in beetroot. Currently, as proof of concept, we silence both genes in hairy roots system. We adopted three complementary strategies to meet the overarching objective of L-DOPA production in beet: a) Classical genetics; b) targeted genetic mutagenesis; and c) random mutagenesis. Yellow beet, mutated in L-DOPA-cyclase exists and can be crossed with “blotchy” red beet, which probably has lower L-DOPA-dioxygenase activity. Impairing L-DOPA-dioxygenase activity in yellow beet is carried out by both the targeted mutagenesis technology CRISPR/Cas9 and the random, yet more assured, EMS mutagenesis approach.

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